Gender-Based Violence
Table of Contents
• Engaging Men to Prevent Gender-Based Violence (2012)
• Masculine gender norms prevent men and boys from seeking help (2012)
• Men's aggression toward women based on their ideas about masculinity (2011)
• Teen boys' beliefs about masculinity are related to dating violence (2011)
• Masculinity codes and sexual coercion (2010)
• Harsh ideas of manhood can justify violence against young women (2010)
• Hypermasculine men are more aggressive, especially to less feminine women (2009)
• Hypermasculine Black men act violent towards women (2009)*
• Hypermasculine men use psychological violence in intimate relationships (2008)
• BOOK: Healing From Violence (2007)*
• Young men's traditional beliefs about masculinity lead to IPV (2006)
• BOOK: The Macho Paradox (2006)
• Aggression seen as acceptable to gain control in relationship (2005)
• Violence often blamed on women who challenge masculinity (2004)
• Hispanic couples may accept violence in intimate relationships (2003)*
• Hypermasculine men are more likely to be violent toward women (2003)
• Typically "masculine" boys abuse their girlfriends to prove manhood (2003)
• Insecure men become aggressive with women (2002)
• Men use violence against women to prove manliness (2002)
• Violence seen as justified when women act dominant (2001)
• Gender stereotypes contribute to violence against Black women (2000)*
• Men react violently when dominance in relationship is challenged (2000)
• Men abuse partners because of insecurities about masculinity (2000)
• Breaking the masculinity and violence link (2000)
• Regulating gender roles for Puerto Rican teens (1999)*
• Stereotypes and violence targeted at women in video games (1998)
*=at-risk or disadvantaged populations
 

Engaging men to prevent gender-based violence (2012)
Engaging Men to Prevent Gender-Based Violence, a new report from Instituto Promundo, summarizes the impact of projects in four different countries that engaged men and cultural codes of manhood in combating partner violence. Engaging men through communities, sports, health, and work, the programs were all effective in changing attitudes about violence against women. This report highlights the wide range of potential avenues for engaging men in violence prevention.
 
TITLE: "Engaging Men to Prevent Gender-Based Violence: A Multi-Country Intervention and Impact Evaluation Study"
AUTHORS: Instituto Promundo

Masculine gender norms prevent men and boys from seeking help (2012)
Adolescent Black males who are victims of dating violence are reluctant to seek help from friends or family, because seeking help is a threat to masculinity. Masculine gender norms which define men as stronger than, and in control of, women cause young men and boys to be ashamed when they are victims and avoid asking for help. For all victims to feel safe and supported, traditional male gender norms that prevent boys and men from seeking help must be changed.
 
TITLE: "Urban Teens and Young Adults Describe Drama, Disrespect, Dating Violence and Help-Seeking Preferences"
AUTHORS: Caitlin Eileen Martin, Avril Melissa Houston, Kristin N. Mmari, Michele R. Decker
JOURNAL: Maternal Child Health YEAR: 2012
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available through Springer
URL: http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10995-011-0819-4

Men’s aggression toward women based on their idea about masculinity (2011)
Men who have traditional ideals about male and female roles in relationships are more likely to be physically or sexually aggressive with women. Men can find it difficult to live up to society's definition of manhood and often have low self esteem, insecurity, and other physiological effects from their failure to be "manly enough". Men can act hostile and aggressive towards females as a way to assert their masculinity and prove their manhood.
 
TITLE: "What Accounts for Men's Hostile Attitudes Toward Women? The Influence of Hegemonic Male Role Norms and Masculine Gender Role Stress"
AUTHORS: Kathryn E. Gallagher and Dominic J. Parrot
JOURNAL: Violence Against Women YEAR: 2011
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available through Sage Publishing for 20$

Teen boys' beliefs about masculinity are related to dating violence (2011)
Teen boys who report having victimized female partners through dating violence are more likely to support traditional norms of masculinity and femininity. These boys are also more likely to believe that their male peers are also violent in their dating relationships. Addressing teen boys’ belief in traditional gender norms and their belief that violence is common in teen dating relationships needs to be an integral part of efforts to prevent teen dating violence.
 
TITLE: "Male Perpetration of Teen Dating Violence: Associations with Neighborhood Violence Involvement, Gender Attitudes, and Perceived Peer Neighborhood Norms”
AUTHORS: Elizabeth Reed, Jay Silverman, Anita Raj, Michele Decker and Elizabeth Miller
JOURNAL: Journal of Urban Health YEAR: 2011
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available through SpringerLink for $34.95

Masculinity codes and sexual coercion (2010)
Boyfriends and husbands are using psychological forms of violence in order to coerce their girlfriends into sleeping with them, and girls go along with it. Girls are saying "yes” to sex when they want to say "no” because they fear what will happen if they don’t. Typical masculinity codes have taught boys that "no” means "try harder”, and girls simply want to avoid the physical and emotional violence they get from refusing sex. Since girls are taught to be passive in the bedroom, they take the path of least resistance and unwillingly commit to sex. This entitlement that boys feel they have to sex is emotionally crippling young girls andleading to the disembodiment of women’s sexuality.
 
TITLE: "Going Along With It: Sexually Coercive Partner Behavior Predicts Dating Women’s Compliance With Unwanted Sex”
AUTHORS: Jennifer Katz and Vanessa Tirone
JOURNAL: Violence Against WomenYEAR: 2010
DIGITAL RIGHTS: available from SAGE journals for $25
URL: http://vaw.sagepub.com/content/16/7/730.full.pdf+html


Harsh ideas of manhood can justify violence against young women (2010)
Young people who believe that men should be in charge in relationships, that men are naturally more aggressive, and that force is an appropriate response when a male's masculinity is challenged are more likely to engage in girlfriend abuse and intimate partner violence and to feel that it is justified.
 
TITLE: "Becoming a ‘Proper Man’: Young People’s Attitudes about Interpersonal Violence and Perceptions of Gender"
AUTHOR: Melanie McCarry
JOURNAL: Gender and Education. YEAR: 2010
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available through Taylor and Francis Online for $36.

Hypermasculine men are more aggressive, especially to less feminine women (2009)
Men who act conventionally masculine are more aggressive, especially to women that behave less feminine. When women behave less feminine it may threaten a hyper-masculine man's dominance and masculinity. Hypermasculine men feel that they should be in control, which makes them more likely to react violently to female partners. Hypermasculine men also turn to aggression and violence more quickly with women who act less submissive and feminine.
 
TITLE: "Men Who Aggress Against Women: Effects of Feminine Gender Role Violation on Physical Aggression in Hypermasculine Men"
AUTHORS: Dennis E. Reidy, Steven D. Shirk, Colleen A. Sloan, and Amos Zeichner
JOURNAL: Psychology of Men & Masculinity. YEAR: 2009
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available through APA PsycNET for $11.95

Hypermasculine Black men act violent towards women (2009)
African American couples experience higher levels of intimate partner violence than Caucasian couples. Black men, faced with racism and classism, are likely to support hypermasculine roles, since traditional masculine role aren't available. As a way to assert their manhood men may take aggression out on female partners.
 
TITLE: " Intimate partner violence against African American women: An examination of the socio-cultural context"
AUTHORS: Casey T. Taft, Thema Bryant-Davis, Halley E. Woodward, Shaquita Tillman, and Sandra E. Torres
JOURNAL: Aggression and Violent Behavior. YEAR: 2009
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available through Elsevier for $19.95

Hypermasculine men use psychological violence in intimate relationships (2008)
Young men who scored on tests as strongly masculine were more likely to engage in psychological violence against intimate partners; those who scored as strongly feminine were less likely. This shows again that efforts to reduce partner violence must engage belief in gender norms.
 
TITLE: "Effects of Masculinity, Sex, and Control on Different Types of Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration"
AUTHOR: Moises Prospero

BOOK: Healing From Violence (2007)
The negative characteristics of machismo, Latino masculine ideology, are strongly tied to violence against women. Men who feel insecure about their position in society or financial status may feel emasculated, which can cause them to act aggressive toward women. Latinas may be at greater risk if their ideas about male and female roles in relationships are less traditional, because men who feel the need to be dominant in relationships may become physically or emotionally abusive to wives and girlfriends who question their dominance.
 
TITLE: "Healing From Violence: Latino Men's Journey to a New Masculinity"
AUTHOR: Christauria Welland and Neil Ribner
YEAR: 2007

Young men's traditional beliefs about masculinity lead to IPV (2006)
Men who have more traditional ideas about masculinity and gender are more likely to engage in violence against women. Traditional values include the belief that is it is important to have respect, particularly from a wife or girlfriend, and that men should be dominant in a relationship. Aggression and violence are seen as important parts of manhood . These beliefs lead men to physically or emotionally harm women if they feel their masculinity is threatened.
 
TITLE: "Masculine Gender Roles Associated with Increased Sexual Risk and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Young Adult Men"
AUTHORS: M. Christina Santana, Anita Raj, Michele R. Decker, Ana La Marche, and Jay G. Silverman
JOURNAL: Journal of Urban Health YEAR: 2006
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Free through pubmed.gov

BOOK: The Macho Paradox (2006)
Intimate Partner Violence is not a "women’s issue;” it’s a broad-based cultural problem. Redefining masculinity and misogynist behavior is crucial to ending male violence against women. Violence and misogynist beliefs are ingrained in our culture and our ideas about manhood. Violence against women is often justified and seen as acceptable in certain situations, like when a women talks back to a man. Ending violence against women means getting men involved as full partner and leaders in the problem of gender based violence and changing attitudes around manhood.
 
TITLE: "The Macho Paradox"
AUTHOR: Jackson Katz
YEAR: 2006

Aggression seen as acceptable to gain control in relationship (2005)
Studies examining masculinity and partner violence show a relationship between masculinity and violence. In all of the studies on masculinity and partner violence, abusive men never claimed more feminine traits than non-abusive men. College-aged men who hold strong beliefs in traditional gender roles are more likely to be aggressive. In couples where the male is dominant, men’s violence against women is more likely.
 
TITLE: "A Review of the Literature on Masculinity and Partner Violence"
AUTHORS: Todd M. Moore and Gregory L. Stuart
JOURNAL: Psychology of Men & Masculinity YEAR: 2005
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available through APA PsycNet with membership

Kids exposed to marital violence may form traditional views about gender (2004)
Boys who witness violence between their parents at home while growing up are much more likely to buy into traditional ideas of masculinity, including the idea that it’s okay to abuse their girlfriends. In fact, a young man’s beliefs in these matters – which is largely shaped by exposure at home – is one of the most important things in deciding whether or not he will become an abuser himself.
 
TITLE: "The Effects of Childhood Exposure to Marital Violence on Adolescent Gender-Role Beliefs and Dating Violence"
AUTHORS: Erika L. Lichter and Laura A. McCloskey
JOURNAL: Psychology of Women Quarterly YEAR: 2004
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available through Wiley Online Library with subscription

Violence often blamed on women who challenge masculinity (2004)

Men often use violence to gain control in relationship and when they feel that they don't live up to popular conceptions of masculinity. Many men justify their violence by blaming it on the female, saying she deserved to be punished since his manhood was challenged. Most men still accept the idea that men should protect women butviolate this idea of masculinity in their own relationships.

TITLE: "Monsters and victims: Male felons' accounts of intimate partner violence"
AUTHOR: Julia T. Wood
JOURNAL: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships YEAR: 2004
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available through SAGE Journals Online for $25

Hispanic couples may accept violence in intimate relationships (2003)
Hispanics couples who buy into cultural norms of marianismso (for women) and machismo (for men) and believe that men should dominate the family, while women should be submissive mothers and wives, have higher rates of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and are generally more likely to accept violence in relationships.
 
TITLE: " Counseling Latina Battered Women: A Qualitative Study of the Latina Perspective"
AUTHORS: Aarti Kasturirangan and Elizabeth Nutt Williams
JOURNAL: Journal of Multicultual Counseling and Development YEAR: 2003
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available through Wiley Online Library with subscription

Hypermasculine men are more likely to be violent toward women (2003)

Men who believe that violence is manly and that danger is exciting are more likely to be aggressive toward women, and are more likely to report having assaulted women. They are also more likely to respond aggressively to challenges to their masculinity, especially when those challenges come from female partners. This means that reducing men’s violence against women needs to address men’s beliefs about masculinity and aggression.

TITLE: "Effects of Hypermasculinity on Physical Aggression Against Women”
AUTHORS: Dominic J. Parrott and Amos Zeichner
JOURNAL: Psychology of Men and MasculinityYEAR: 2003
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available through PsycNet for $11.95

Typically "masculine" boys abuse their girlfriends to prove manhood (2003)

Boys physically and emotionally abuse their girlfriends to prove how "manly” they are. Young men who believe that women are inferior to men tend to resort to physical violence because they feel that it is okay for men to hit women. Boys learn that they must publicly dominate women (and other men) and feel that they must "put women in their place”; one boy even admitted, "It really pisses me off when I see a girl who pretends that she doesn’t have to be in her place.” A girl’s job, according to violent boys, is "to take care of shit at home—cooking, cleaning, the kids.” In order to maintain their power, boys feel that it is their obligation to abuse women and keep them weak. Successful intervention programs in elementary schools can influence the way boys perceive women—allowing them to develop healthy masculine identities rather than become abusive boyfriends.

TITLE: "Girlfriend Abuse as a Form of Masculinity Construction among Violent, Marginal Male Youth”
AUTHORS: Mark Totten
JOURNAL: Men and Masculinities YEAR: 2003
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available through Sage for $25

Insecure men become aggressive with women (2002)

Men use violence against women who try to act dominant or challenge a man's masculinity. Men may feel insecure if they feel they cannot live up to traditional ideas about masculinity, like if they cannot support their family financially. If men are unable to live up to traditional masculinity they can turn to more aggressive, misogynistic traits to appear more masculine.

TITLE: "Intimate partner violence: causes and prevention"
AUTHOR: Rachel Jewkes
JOURNAL: The LancetYEAR: 2002
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available for free through Ethics In Health

Men use violence against women to prove manliness (2002)
Men with traditional beliefs about gender often need to assert their masculinity and prove their dominance in relationships. These men frequently develop a callous attitude towards women and justify their violence and aggression against wives and girlfriends.
 
TITLE: "The Role of Masculine Ideology and Masculine Gender Role Stress in Men’s Perpetration of Relationship Violence"
AUTHORS: Matthew Jakupcak, David Lisak, and Lizabeth Roemer
JOURNAL: Journal of Men and Masculinity YEAR: 2002
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available through APA Psyc Net for $11.95

Violence seen as justified when women act dominant (2001)
Women are often blamed for violence that occurs in relationships when they challenged a man's dominance or right to be in control. Cultural ideas about gender lead many people to believe that men are naturally more powerful, and should be dominant in romantic relationships. Men often react violently to anything that challenges these notions and this is often seen as a justified response to gender role transgressions.
 
TITLE: "Gendering Violence: Masculinity and Power in Men's Accounts of Domestic Violence"
AUTHORS: Kristin L. Anderson and Debra Umberson
JOURNAL: Gender and Society YEAR: 2001
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available through SAGE Journals Online for $25

Gender stereotypes contribute to violence against Black women (2000)
Hypermasculine Black men who buy into stereotypic notions of Black femininity -- the "Jezebel" image, that Black women are promiscuous, tempting, and lewd - are more likely to abuse female partners and feel that women deserve to be abused.
TITLE: "Dating Aggression Among Low Income African American Youth: An Examination of Gender Differences and Antagonistic Beliefs"

AUTHORS: Carolyn M. West and Suzanna Rose
JOURNAL: Violence Against Women YEAR: 2000
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available through SAGE Journals for $25

Men react violently when dominance in relationship is challenged (2000)
Men feel stress when their masculinity is challenged, reacting with anger, irritation, and resentment. When the challenge to their manhood comes from a female partner they can react violently. Men often use controlling strategies with women, like violence and verbal abuse, to gain and keep power in relationships.
 
TITLE: "Masculine gender role stress and intimate abuse: Effects of gender relevance of conflict situations on men's attributions and affective responses"
AUTHORS: Richard M. Eisler, Joseph J. Franchina, Todd M. Moore, Hunter G. Honeycutt, and Deborah L. Rhatigan
JOURNAL: Psychology of Men and Masculinity . YEAR: 2000
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available through APA Psyc Net for $11.95

Men abuse partners because of insecurities about masculinity (2000)
Men who abuse alcohol and feel insecure about their masculinity may be more aggressive and angry, which can lead to violence against female partners. Men who adhere to more traditional gender roles and feel they can't live up to an unrealistic manly ideal may feel threatened, stressed, inadequate, and inferior to women and are more likely to take it out on wives, girlfriends, and female partners
 
TITLE: "Masculine Gender-Role Stress, Anger, and Male Intimate Abusiveness: Implications for Men’s Relationships"
AUTHORS: Michael M. Copenhaver, Steve J. Lash, and Richard M. Eisler
JOURNAL: Sex Roles. YEAR: 2000
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available through SpringerLink for $34.95

Breaking the masculinity and violence link (2000)
Men and boys are more likely than girls to bear weapons and resort to violence during a conflict because boys feel greater pressure to prove "manhood” with violence. Many anti-violence programs targeted at teens and young adults fail because they do not realize that manhood codes and the need to "be a man” increase the likelihood of violence. Programs like Men Against Violence (MAV) have succeeded, because they focus on changing cultural norms and supporting a non-violent definition of masculinity. MAV helps young men overcome homophobia by expanding the definition of manhood. MAV members learn to see women as equals, resolve conflicts without violence, and develop meaningful male friendships that don’t rely on dominance, aggression or shared contempt for girls. Boys who have expanded ideals of masculinity are less likely to have unprotected sex, engage in binge drinking, or resort to physical violence. The MAV programs have helped decrease violence and have had a lasting effect on their members.
 
TITLE: "Toward a Transformed Approach to Prevention: Breaking the Link between Masculinity and Violence"
AUTHOR: Luoluo Hong
JOURNAL: Journal of American College Health. YEAR: 2000
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available free from PreventConnect.org

Regulating gender roles for Puerto Rican teens (1999)*
Among acculturated, second generation Puerto Ricans "macho" and "slut" don’t really refer to sexuality but are about regulating gender roles and are tied to partner violence. "Slut" is used to stigmatize a girl for infidelity, for having multiple boys as sexual partners, or deviating from feminine gender norms. Since "sluts" don’t deserve respect, calling a girl one is often a prelude to girlfriend abuse and/or partner violence. Meanwhile "macho” guys are expected to pursue girls and exert control over their female partners; this pressure to "man up” and be sexually active often leads to intimate partner violence and girlfriend abuse.
 
TITLE: "Machos and Sluts: Gender, Sexuality, and Violence among a Cohort of Puerto Rican Adolescents"
AUTHOR: Marysol W. Asencio
JOURNAL: Medical Anthropology Quarterly . YEAR: 1999
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available through JSTORE for $12.00

Stereotypes and violence targeted at women in video games (1998)
In video games that have characters, there are no women or girls in 41% of them. In 28% of the ones that do have female characters, they’re shown in traditional femme colors of pink and yellow and with long hair, thigh-high boots, gloves, revealing leotards, and similar femme-fatale apparel. Women are heroes or action figures in only 15 % of video games – about one in six. Nearly 80% of games include aggression or violence as part of the game’s strategy and goal, such as rescuing a kidnapped female victim. Nearly 21% of games depict violence towards women.
 
TITLE: "An Examination of Violence and Gender Role Portrayals in Video Games: Implications for Gender Socialization and Aggressive Behavior"
AUTHOR: Tracy L. Dietz
JOURNAL: Sex Roles. YEAR: 1998
DIGITAL RIGHTS: Available through SpringerLink


   

 

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